Indicator 15.4.1

Indicator Name, Target and Goal

Indicator 15.4.2: Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity

Target 15.4: By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development . 

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Definition and Rationale


This indicator shows temporal trends in the mean percentage of each important site for mountain biodiversity that is covered by designated protected areas.


Protected areas, as defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; Dudley 2008), are clearly defined geographical spaces, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Importantly, a variety of specific management objectives are recognized within this definition, spanning conservation, restoration, and sustainable use:

– Category Ia: Strict nature reserve

– Category Ib: Wilderness area

– Category II: National park

– Category III: Natural monument or feature

– Category IV: Habitat/species management area

– Category V: Protected landscape/seascape – Category VI: Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources

Rationale and Interpretation:

The safeguard of important sites is vital for stemming the decline in biodiversity and ensuring long term and sustainable use of mountain natural resources. The establishment of protected areas is an important mechanism for achieving this aim, and this indicator serves as a means of measuring progress toward the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of mountain ecosystems and their services, in line with obligations under international agreements.

Unit of measure:

Percentage (%).


The Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established and available methodology and standards, and that data is regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.

Data Sources and Collection Method

Data sources:

Data collection methods:

Data collection calendar: 2020

Data release calendar: 2021

Data providers: Forest Department, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Data compilers: Forest Department, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Institutional mandate: Through the Statistical Act 2013, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) is mandated to generate official statistics or provide guidance to other agencies for producing official statistics. Responsibilities for each ministry to support specific SDG indicators is outlined in the Mapping of Ministries by Targets in the implementation of SDGs aligning with 7th Five Year Plan (2016-20) document, which lists Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change as the official Lead Ministry for this indicator. The Forest Department is the designated line agency within the Ministry for this indicator.

Method of Computation and Other Methodological Considerations

Computation Method:

The indicator is computed by dividing the total number of Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) wholly covered by protected areas by the total number of KBAs in each country, and multiplying by 100. “Wholly protected” is defined as >98% coverage to allow for resolution and digitization errors in the underlying spatial datasets.

[Information on Publakhali Wildlife Sanctuary at Rangamati district]

Mountainous areas in the country have been identified based on the definitions of mountains in Kapos et al (2000) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (resolution: 1 arc second or approximately 30 meter) data. Based on the elevation, two mountainous classes are identified in Bangladesh:

Mountains classes in BangladeshArea (ha)
Class 5: elevation 1,000–1,500 meters and slope > 5 or local elevation range (LER 7 kilometer radius) > 300 meters13
Class 6: elevation 300–1,000 meters and local elevation range (7 kilometer radius) > 300 meters157,479

Figure. Mountain area in Bangladesh based on the definitions of mountains in Kapos et al (2000) and SRTM (resolution: 1 arc second or approximately 30 meter) data

Comments and limitations: 

Method of computation: 


Quality Management:

Quality Assurance:

Quality Assessment:

Data Disaggregation

  • Division: Dhaka, Chattogram, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet.
  • Protected area management category: categories I–VI
  • Ecosystem type: Forest, marine, terrestrial, freshwater

Comparability/ deviations from international standards



Official SDG Metadata URL

Internationally agreed methodology and guideline URL

Kapos, V., J. Rhind, M. Edwards, M.F. Price and C. Ravilious, 2000: Developing a map of the world’s mountain forests. In: Forests in Sustainable Mountain Development: A State-of-Knowledge Report for 2000, M.F. Price and N. Butt (eds.), CAB International, Wallingford: 4–9.

Other references

International Organization(s) for Global Monitoring

This document was prepared based on inputs from Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

For focal point information for this indicator, please visit